Thursday, June 4, 2020

Law School Admissions Deciding whether to retake the LSAT

Ah, the LSAT. That dreaded rite of passage. The most important piece in the law school puzzle. And those Logic Games! Who cares if Train C pulled in at 1pm before Train D! But, alas, it is the kicker for securing top law school admissions, so it must be taken seriously. Here are some questions to ask yourself when deciding whether to retake: 1. How does my score compare to my practice tests? Most people go down a little bit on the actual test compared to their best practice tests. This makes sense – people too often fail to fully simulate actual testing conditions, you are often exposed to practice questions multiple times when studying, and test day anxiety is a real thing. If you scored considerably lower on your actual exams than on repeated (emphasis on repeated) practice exams, this is a good reason to think about retaking. The more practice exams you’ve taken (with five sections, under completely real testing conditions), the better sense you have of what score you could actually get. 2. Was the test day my best day or worst day? If you walked into that test and walked out feeling phenomenal, that is a reason not to re-take. You studied, you had a great test day, now work with what you’ve got. If it was your worst day (e.g., I panicked on the first logic game, the experimental section threw me off, I gave up midway through), this is a reason to think about retaking. Talk to your LSAT tutor about strategies for making sure these worst-case test day scenarios don’t happen on round two. 3. What scores do you need for your target schools? Work with your JD admissions coach to make your school list, and think about the LSAT alongside the rest of your application. How strong is your GPA? Do you have a target set of schools in mind? If your score is competitive for the schools you are interested in, and you really can’t imagine taking the LSAT again, that weighs against a retake. 4. Are you shooting for the tippy top schools (i.e. Top 7ish)? If you are shooting for the tippy top schools and you didn’t break 173, I almost always suggest retaking, unless your practice exams were decidedly lower. It is a myth that they don’t like to see people having taken it twice – in fact, the opposite is true. They think it shows a commitment to the test (sadistic, I know). If you have the gas mileage to do it again, and don’t think your score will go down, it almost always makes sense to re-take. 5. What kind of bandwidth do you have? If the LSAT was truly miserable for you, and you dreaded every moment of studying, this is a good reason to call it. You don’t want to make yourself miserable and distract from the other important elements of the application. But if you have it in you, and really believe you could do better, that certainly makes a retake more viable. 6. What is your timeline? If you took the December test, most schools (Yale being a notable exception) don’t allow you to take the February sitting. If you took the September exam, you might think about sending your application in, and attaching a short supplemental note telling them that you are retaking the LSAT and will be sending that score in when it arrives. This might delay when you hear back, but will put you in the â€Å"applied early in the process† pool. Basically, the more distance you have between your first take and the fall you’re applying, the easier it is to retake. This blog post is part of a series on law school admissions. You can read Jimmy's previous post here: Law School Admissions: Deciding on the diversity statement. Whether you’re just beginning on this race, or whether you just need a final push to get you over the finish line, your LSAT tutor will design a customized road map that will take you through every aspect of the application process, covering LSAT preparation, recommendations, the personal statement, addenda, and anything else that you need. Applicants who follow our structured approach find that they are less stressed out and more successful. ; Applying to law school this year? Check out some of our previous blog posts below! How to maximize your chances of an excellent law school recommendation letter Don’t forget: the LSAT is a performance-driven test Is Law School Right for Me?

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Greek Mythology Greek Gods And Goddesses - 1577 Words

Greek Mythology In my research I have learned an addition of facts and stories about Greek mythology. Like how â€Å"the Pegasus and Chrysor came from the blood of Medusa’s head after Perseus cut it off† (Greek Mythology). Or how the â€Å"Amazonian group of warriors was all females† (Greek Mythology). The more that I have research about my topic the more fascinating and interesting it becomes. I hope that everyone will further their research and knowledge on this topic whether it’s reading a book, researching on the Internet, or even just watching a movie. In this paragraph will be information on Greek Gods and Goddesses. There was a governing body for the Grecians. This mythological group was very important. They were usually the reason for war and many believed that they were so superior that they would bring disease and death upon others that they dislike or the people that would try to out shine them. They were called The Olympians. There were twelve Olympians, however before I name them there actually were 13, but Hestia gave up her position for Dionysus. There was Zeus, Poseidon, Hermes, Hephatus, Hera, Demeter, Aphrodite, Athena, Artimes, Dionysus, Aries (Ares or Aris), and Apollo.† (Greek Gods and Goddesses) There was one other God that is also very important to the Olympians. His name was Hades and he was the God of the Dead. He was not considered an Olympian though because he was always to be in the Underworld. Hades had one day decided that he wanted a partner howeverShow MoreRelatedGreek Mythology : Gods And Goddesses 1972 Words   |  8 Pages Carine Kessie ENG 2010-29 Van De Water April 21, 2017 Greek Mythology: Gods and Goddesses The ancients Greeks were polytheistic which means they used to worship many gods. In the past, Greek gods and goddesses used to live at the top of Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. However, despite their great powers, gods and goddesses were much like humans, and sometimes they had to come down to hearth to intervene in the affairs of mortals, involving men and women, enemies, and sometimes loversRead MoreGreek Mythology : Gods And Goddesses1725 Words   |  7 Pages2017 Greek Mythology: Gods and Goddesses, The ancients Greeks were polytheistic which means they used to worship many gods. Greek gods and goddesses used to live at the top of Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. However, despite their great powers, gods and goddesses were much like humans, and sometimes they had to come down to hearth to get involved and intervened in the affairs of mortals, involving with men and women as patrons, enemies, and sometimes lovers. Greek mythology describedRead MoreGreek And Roman Mythology881 Words   |  4 PagesGreek and Roman Mythology Since the dawn of time, different societies have worshiped gods, believing in their power and being afraid of their fury. People have prayed and made sacrifices in order to achieve the gods mercy and generosity. They believed that, if the gods are in good mood, they will provide people with good weather conditions for growing crops. People needed explanations for different natural phenomena, such as rain, drought, lightning, thunder and earthquake. So, ancient people believedRead MoreGreek And Roman Painting And Floor Mosaic Essay1228 Words   |  5 PagesAs a student in ARH 270: Introduction to Ancient Art in Greek and Roman Mural Painting and Floor Mosaic, I have developed a greater understanding of art in the ancient Mediterranean world, in regards to ancient Rome and Greece. For the Fall 2016 semester, some of the knowledge that I have gained includes being able to visually analyze a work of art in its historical context. For instance, I have learned to visualize the artwork, Th is includes, but is not limited to style, technique, relation to previousRead MoreComparing Roman And Greek Mythology1354 Words   |  6 Pages Roman Vs. Greek Mythology Roman and Greek mythology are full of complexities. Much of Greek and Roman everyday life revolved around these myths. Many similarities are obvious between Roman and Greek mythology because the Romans borrowed a significant amount of their myths and gods from the Greeks. Although Roman and Greek mythology have a few components in common, they also have many various aspects that cause differences in their cultures. First of all; values, morals, traditionsRead MoreGreek Gods and Goddess875 Words   |  4 PagesThe Greek Gods: Ancient vs. Modern Views According to ancient Greek mythology the Greek gods and goddesses had at one time lived the savage, brutal and ugly life of humans. Eventually, however, they managed to rise above this ancient fierceness to become the nineteen elder gods and goddesses the Greeks knew as The Titans, who ruled the earth in a primordial era before the Olympian gods overthrew them. The ancient Greeks of the first millennium before the Christian era believedRead MoreWomen Of Ancient Greek Mythology Essay1535 Words   |  7 Pagesin Ancient Greece. Throughout Greek mythology, women were considered inferior and troublesome symbols, while men were known for courage, leadership, and strength. While there is no argument of the flagrant sexism that is illustrated in Greek mythology, it can also be claimed that women were given a situated position of freedom, necessity, and power as well. Many popular Greek plays and myths contain several complexes and well described female characters. These goddesses themselves, partook the roleRead MoreThe Gods of Greek Mythology Essay1325 Words   |  6 PagesIn Greek Mythology, perhaps one of the most rudimental yet one of the most important elements are the Greek Gods and Goddesses. The ancient Greeks created the stories about the lives and journeys of the Greek Gods, known as myths, simply as an endeavor to elucidate natur e and all phenomena which were difficult to explain using modern science and logic. These myths about the Gods were spread around the world by explorers and storytellers, and later merged with Greek religion. To this day, numerousRead MoreNorse Mythology vs. Greek Mythology Essay1069 Words   |  5 PagesNorse Mythology vs. Greek Mythology There are many mythologies in the world, and all of these have things in common as well as differences. A very popular mythology would be Greek mythology, Which many people know about it or at least know of it. Another not as popular mythology is Norse mythology; Norse mythology is the religion of the Norse people. The Norse people are the ancient people of northern Europe (Scandinavia, Iceland, Denmark, Northern Germany etc.) (World Book 259). A majorRead MoreEssay on Christianity vs. Greek Mythology1309 Words   |  6 PagesChristians and Greeks. Both have similarities and differences in their religious beliefs that have been compared often and I have chosen to discuss the similarities and differences of Christianity and ancient Greek mythology. Christianity is a monotheistic religion, or belief in only one God, and spiritual practices are based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as written in the New Testament of the Bible, with the role of Jesus as savior and the Son of God. Greek mythology is a polytheistic

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Prejudice Is The Conviction That One s Race Essay

Prejudice is the conviction that one s race, skin shading, or all the more all things considered, one s social event, be it of religious, national or ethnic identity, is superior to others in mankind. It has been a bit of the American scene basically since the European colonization of North America beginning in the seventeenth century. Distinctive get-togethers have borne the brunt of it, appeared in harsh laws, social practices, and criminal lead facilitated toward a goal gathering. The going with is a summary of just a couple and their experiences. No American ought to be supremacist. There are such an assortment of people in the States, such an assortment of people with an extensive variety of skin shades and everyone should recognize each other. Everyone is an individual and there is no person who is less than impressive contrasted with another. Numerous people furthermore gather that preference doesn t exist in America. Political get-togethers and parties have endeavored to make consistency among the races in the Unified States by saying bias is an issue from the past which should be disregarded, however bigotry is an outlook and it is to a great degree difficult to change people s attitude. Bias is the conviction that with people from no less than one race are below average contrasted with people from various races. Generally, this perspective furthermore incorporates the conviction that one s own race is superior to anything distinctive races. People areShow MoreRelatedPride And Prejudice By Jane Austen915 Words   |  4 Pagescenturies ago, exactly on Jan. 28, 1813, Jane Austen s second novella first saw print. From the timeless opening lines, It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife, Pride Prejudice has enraptured readers worldwide, in every single language, for 201 years. Jane Austen s work is a unique gem and highly esteemed treasure which everyone should read. To this day, Pride Prejudice is still teaching and asking probing questions ofRead MoreRacism Is The Conviction That One s Race Essay1772 Words   |  8 PagesRacism is the conviction that one s race, skin shading, or all the mor e by and large, one s gathering, be it of religious, national or ethnic personality, is better than others in humankind. It has been a piece of the American scene essentially since the European colonization of North America starting in the seventeenth century. Different gatherings have borne the brunt of it, showed in oppressive laws, social practices, and criminal conduct coordinated toward an objective gathering. The accompanyingRead MorePrejudice, Racism, And Prejudice862 Words   |  4 Pages segregation, or enmity coordinated against somebody of an alternate race in light of the conviction that one s own particular race is superior is prevalent. Prejudice is as old as human culture itself. For whatever length of time that individuals have been around, the contention has remained alive; people have constantly despised or dreaded individuals of an alternate country or skin color. It is said that racism or prejudice is simply some portion of human instinct, but we are not born wi th racismRead MoreDiscovering The True Colors By Harper Lee1344 Words   |  6 PagesDiscovering the True Colors Prejudice, like evil, lurks in everyone, whether it is visible or hidden beneath the surface of a calm, clear pool. It is the cause of an invisible line, a separation, between people. Often that line is unreal, created in the minds of people, but requires conformity and rejects individuals. Prejudice is explored in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, a captivating novel that revolves around the experiences of two children, Jem and Scout, who witness prejudice and hatred in an unfairRead MoreAnalysis Of On The Road By Langston Hughes1570 Words   |  7 Pagesthemes are of race, religion, and subjective nature of fiction. An influential African-American writer, Hughes was born in 1902 and primarily raised by his maternal grandmother (Meyer 1032). Over the course of his illustrious career he would go on to write poems, novels, short stories, essays, plays, opera librettos, histories, documentaries, anthologies, autobiographies, biographies, children’s books, translations, a nd even radio and television scripts (Meyer 1034). â€Å"On the Road† is one of these worksRead MoreThe South : Controversial Topics On Harper Lee s Kill A Mockingbird1475 Words   |  6 PagesHarper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird is a critically acclaimed, Pulitzer Prize winning novel that instantly attained its position as one of the greatest literary classics (Editors).The story of Scout Finch’s childhood has become one of the most notable narratives that addresses controversial issues present in the early 20th century. Lee’s novel depicts themes of race, justice, and innocence throughout the novel. Although To Kill a Mockingbird is regarded as a literary masterpiece in American literatureRead MoreAnalysis Of Harper Lee s Kill A Mockingbird 1491 Words   |  6 PagesHarper Lee’s ​ To Kill a Mockingbird ​ is a critically acclaimed, Pulitzer Prize winning novel that instantly attained its position as one of the greatest literary classics (Editors).The story of Scout Finch’s childhood has become one of the most notable narratives that addresses controversial issues present in the early 20th century. Lee’s novel depicts themes of race, justice, and innocence throughout the novel. Although ​ To Kill a Mockingbird​ is regarded as a literary masterpiece in American literatureRead More Harper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird Essay1367 Words   |  6 Pageshad been abolished decades before, but the southern states were still attempting to restrict social interaction among people of different races. In particular, blacks were subject to special Jim Crow laws which restricted their rights and attempted to keep the race inferior to whites. Even beyond these laws, however, blacks were feeling the pressure of prejudice. In the legal system, blacks were not judged by a group of their peers; rather, they were judged by a group of twelve white men. In seriousRead MoreDo culture and individual beliefs affect logical thinking? If so, how do they influence the conclusions we reach?1522 Words   |  7 PagesThe first question that must be asked before answering this question is: What exactly is logical thinking? Logical thinking is the process in which one uses reasoning consistently to come to a conclusion. If this definition is stri ctly followed, logical thinking cannot be affected by any outside influences as long as the premises are truly valid. For example the syllogism: All mammals are warm blooded. Whales are mammals. Whales are warm blooded. is truly logical because the major premise isRead More To what extent is To Kill a Mocking Bird a novel about prejudice?1679 Words   |  7 Pagesabout prejudice? To Kill a Mocking Bird is set in Maycomb in a small southern American county this is of great importance to the novel. Scout best sums up the situation faced by Maycomb by saying There was no hurry. Because there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb. The people of Maycomb were often inter related and posses traditional white conservative moral values. This is why you would expect prejudice, divisions

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

FSA homework free essay sample

The Memberships then allow members to access legal services through a network of independent law firms for no fee or for a discounted Rhea Memberships are marketed by a sales force. This sales force is paid solely on commission. To incentive the sales force, Pre-paid Legal Services advances three Hears worth of commission on each new customer. When Pre-paid pays the three- ear advance, it decreases cash and increases a prepaid commission asset :deferred expenses). This prepaid commission asset is then expensed over the subsequent three years as commission expense. Do you think Pre-paids accounting for commissions is appropriate?Why or why not? See excerpts from an article about Apple on the next page. Identify the one sentence that the author of this article would not have written had he been enrolled in this financial statement analysis course. Apples Cash Pile Grows On Investors ay Ben Chary, 22 January 2009 DOD Jones News Service, (c) 2009 DOD Jones Company, Inc. We will write a custom essay sample on FSA homework or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page SAN FRANCISCO (DOD Jones)Apple Inc. (PAPAL)s cash hoard used to frustrate investors. Now, it soothes them. On Wednesday, Cupertino, Cilia. -based Apple disclosed its cash pile among the biggest in the technology sector had grown to $28. 1 billion.That dwarfs those of computer-makers Hewlett-Packard Co. (HP) and Dell Inc. (DELL), as well as software maker Microsoft Corp.. (MOST), services giant International Business Machines Inc. (MM) and electronics maker Sony Corp. . (SEEN) Gnats more, the way Apple accounts for its hit phone smartness means a slow and steady buildup of cash is likely to accrue over the next two years. In its first fiscal quarter, phone deferred revenue, so called because the company accounts for the revenue over the course of a two-year contract, came to about $1. 5 billion, or about 15% of Apples overall revenue.Apple is positioned to the weather the ongoing recession with greater ease than many of its technology peers. The billions in dollars it holds in bank accounts and easily salable securities means the company has an alternative to fund its operations f credit gets tight. It also has the resources to develop a new product or make an acquisition, something that might become attractive as valuations of potential targets he realization that Apples cash is a strength during a recession has quieted critics, No in the past have called on the company to buy back shares or offer a dividend. Nat was required first though was a change in investor sentiment. Either of those actions could help buoy Apple shares, which have dropped 43% over the past year. A lot of people would like to see something done with all that cash, said UBS analyst Maynard I-Jam. But in this environment theres a bigger focus so nobodys asking those questions right now. Apples cash holdings dont leave it invulnerable to problems caused by the economy. Its latest earnings report highlighted a sharp slowdown in its desktop computer business, which contributes nearly a fifth of overall revenue.And even though its pod music players posted higher unit sales, each unit sold was less profitable than a year ago. Apple is not immune to the current recession, noted Needled analyst Charlie Wolf noted to clients Thursday. Still, the company has successfully diversified from being a maker of niche high-end computers Just a few years ago into a rounded consumer electronics company now. That means Apple is more recession resistant because if one segment slows down, the others can pick up the slack.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Narcissism

Introduction An intersubjective view is a perspective in which different parties agree about a certain issue. Narcissism has elicited a lot of interest and research from the psychodynamic school of thought. However, there is surprising agreement about the manifestations, origins, development and treatment of narcissism.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Narcissism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One demonstrates intersubjective views on a subject by showing how multiple scholars from different schools of thought agree on various aspects of the subject. This report will highlight the intersubjective view of narcissism by comparing object relations theorists to Freudian or ego theorists, self psychology theorists Jungian theorists as well as personality psychologists. Intersubjective view on the definition and manifestation of narcissism Psychologists have a general agreement that a person with narcissistic personal ity disorder is one who exhibits narcissistic behaviour owing to deep-seated feelings of low self esteem (Millon Davis, 1996). They often use arrogance as a cover for their shortfalls. The DSM IV criteria of the condition are indicative of intersubjective agreement. While Millon, a personality theorist, recognised that these behaviours do not come from a place of real confidence and self belief, Forman, a psychodynamic theorist, acknowledges that these individuals often feel empty and unfulfilled (Forman, 1976). Reich, an ego psychology adherent, also concurs with the above, by stating that narcissistic people have an unrealistic view of themselves, yet they cannot measure up to that view (Reich, 1986). This causes them to persistently aspire for high status. Masterson, an objects relations theorist, explains that narcissists are self involved and characterised by depictions of grandiosity (Masterson, 1981). Forman (1976) states that most of these patients strive for perfection, ev en though they have minimal chances of achieving it. Most scholars also have an intersubjective view of the narcissist’s relationship with others. Reich (1986) explains that these individuals do not have a healthy association with others. They instead depend on them to get approval. Forman (1976) adds that they often look to others to gain esteem and respect. Millon Davis (1996) affirm that narcissists often degrade the achievement of others in order to make themselves feel better.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Masterson (1981) claims that it is not unusual to witness feelings of intense envy among them because of the emptiness they feel. Reich (1986) adds that their inadequacies cause them to seek attention from others. When in the presence of others, they will boast and exaggerate their achievements. They often look out for other people’s reactions to them, and are too sensitive to disapproval. In fact, other people’s judgement about them often causes these individuals to experience intense humiliation and sensitivity. Forman (1976) reiterates that a person with the disorder may seek an idealised partner in order to gain affirmation. Masterson (1981) adds that such people will look for perfect partners in order to mirror those idealised qualities for the narcissist. Scholars also agree on some of the manifestations of this condition. The narcissistic person will demonstrate rage even during minor interactions. Such an individual will be offended when his need for approval is frustrated (Reich, 1986). Furthermore, the person is immensely self conscious as his esteem comes from other people’s endorsement. In fact, such a person will undergo sporadic periods of high self esteem and excitement, then go through low moments (Forman, 1976) (Reich, 1986). Masterson (n.d., para. 50) has good explanations concerning why patients exhibit this kind of behaviour. He states that most patients have intimacy and relationship issues because closeness would penetrate their grandiose facade and get to the flawed self. This would trigger feelings of abandonment and devastate the patient. Therefore, the series of narcissistic relationships are enormous. Sometimes, the patient may claim that he lacks friends or may look for unavailable partners. In other scenarios, the narcissistic subject may assert that he feels detached in relationships. All these manifestations depict the need to protect the fragile self from exposure. Additionally, Masterson (n.d., para. 81) explains that persons with this disorder may experience bouts of rage because they have a sense of entitlement, which rarely gets acknowledged.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Narcissism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, other people may not know about that entitlement, hence explaining wh y they cannot acknowledge it. Reich (1986) explains that approval-seeking stems from one’s lack of understanding of their true self. It is a futile attempt at developing a high esteem since one cannot look inward to find this confidence. Wurmser (1981), a Freudian psychologist, explains that subjects will have exhibitionist tendencies because they want to overpower their object. They believe that their words or actions will charm, magnetise and eventually subjugate the other. Origins of narcissism in infancy Most psychodynamic literature traces narcissism to one’s infancy. The pioneer of psychodynamic theory, Sigmund Freud, used his ego theory to explain how narcissism comes about. He starts with the term libido, which refers to the energy that exists in humans owing to sexual and survival impulses. The libido is a prime part of the id, which drives human behaviour. At the infant stage, all humans are born with an innate love for themselves; Freud called this tendency primary narcissism. Usually, the infant’s libido is directed at the self. However, as one grows, then one must learn to redirect this flow of libido to an object. In fact, Freud argued that the goal of therapy should be to replace narcissism with object love (Lee and Martin, 1991). Intersubjective views of infancy exist among a number of scholars. Heinz Kohut, who is the proponent of self psychology, also agreed with Freud on this matter. He believed that human beings had an innate love for the self, and if left unchecked, then it could develop into a narcissistic personality in adulthood (Kohut, 1966). Therefore, the infant treats the world as revolving around himself. Nonetheless, Kohut disagreed with Freud concerning the role of therapy in dealing with narcissism. He claimed that therapists cannot and should not attempt to replace all narcissism with object love as the two can work together (Lee and Martin, 1991). The two scholars differed in terms of therapeutic approache s, but they still had a general consensus about the innate existence of self love in the infant and its modification in adulthood through the introduction of object love.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Childhood experiences and their role in narcissism Kohut (1966) believed that a person’s childhood has an adverse effect on their understanding of the self. As children grow, they exhibit behaviour that is imperative to proper functioning during adulthood. For instance, some of them may have competitive tendencies. However, since their perceptions of the self have not yet developed, then their ability to cultivate this natural behaviour will depend on other people’s reaction. If a child’s family members respond negatively to constructive competitive behaviour, then the child’s perception of the self will be damaged. Some families may reject or humiliate the young person because of exhibiting that conduct. Eventually, the child will suppress that behaviour but it will resurface during their adulthood in a distorted from. One such manifestation is narcissistic behaviour. Almaas (1996) reiterates these sentiments by stating that children are never seen as th ey are. They depend upon external mirrors in order to solidify their senses. The narcissistic need is a primary need for all children as it confirms what they perceive and even allows them to comprehend it. Johnson (1987) also demonstrates intersubjectivity with Kohut (1966) by stating that a child’s weak side ought to be reconciled with their magnificent nature. The familial environment has a large role to play in supporting these two polarities (Johnson, 1987). It can then allow the self to manifest freely. Nonetheless, if the family requires the child to become something that he is not, then chances are that narcissistic injury will occur. Therefore, a general psychoanalyst like Johnson (1987) demonstrates intersubjectivity with Kohut, a self psychologist, concerning the root cause of narcissism in childhood. A child’s experiences can lead to narcissism owing to the helplessness of their situation. Most of the humiliation, unfair treatment, or rejection that takes p lace in childhood cannot be controlled (Kohut, 1966). A child almost feels powerless over the situation that causes him distress. Therefore, such a person may develop a defence mechanism in adulthood where he or she tries to deal with the feeling of helplessness (Wolf, 1988). This narcissist will have a fragile perception of the self in the helpless state, so they may feel compelled to do something to preserve the integrity of the self. Alternatively, situations in which power or specialness is over rewarded may create a sense of vulnerability in the child (Johnson, 1987). Parents may also cause narcissistic injury when they transfer caretaking roles to their children. A child who takes care of their parents will have authority and trust issues. Besides, a child whose achievements elicit envious reactions from parents will experience this condition, as well. The reverse may also be true when a parent lives through their child’s accomplishments, this may also wound the childâ €™s self (Johnson, 1987). Childhood memories of incidences that spark narcissistic rage never disappear. In fact, whenever a person destroys the object that caused him temporary helplessness or shame, another substitute will spark off those feelings again. These experiences in childhood will thus predispose an adult into a pathological state of paranoia (Wolf, 1988). Therefore, Kohut (1966) suggests that therapists must attempt to find the source of that narcissistic discontentment. The importance of tracing one’s childhood experiences is vital to treatment of narcissistic behaviour disorders, according to the self psychology theorist. Intersubjective agreement on the latter fact exists among object relations theorists, as well. Masterson (1981) explains that the degree to which a child’s real self is supported and acknowledged by parents makes a lot of difference. The real self, according to this author is a combination of both good and bad things; it is also spon taneous and autonomous. Almaas (1996), an integral theorist, reiterates that the wrong interpretation of what a child is can cause a sense of betrayal and hurt. Consequently, this leads to confusion about the self. Essentially, the person will grow to become narcissistic. Blanck and Blanck (1974), who are ego theorists, also demonstrate intersubjective agreement by arguing that children loose their self esteem because they get fixated on valuation of the self object. Masterson (n.d., para. 15) also echoes the above sentiments concerning parenting. He claims that persons with narcissistic disorders tend to come from unsupportive homes. Many of their parents try to mould them into perfect beings without thinking about their emotional needs. Therefore, a child will try to be perfect in order to meet a parent’s ideal projections. In adulthood the person will develop a grandiose sense of self in order to protect himself from feelings of abandonment or failure by the parent. Additi onally, if one or all the parents have narcissistic disorders, then chances are the child’s real self will not be supported, and this will lead to narcissism in the child, as well (Masterson, n.d., para. 38). Freud and Kohut also concur on the relevance of idealisation. When children idealise their parents, they learn about the importance of empathising and caring for others through mirroring (Blanck and Blanck, 1974). This allows them to sooth themselves in situations that demand it. Therefore, if ideal role models lack in a child’s life, then they will not have someone to mirror the importance of self worth or the usefulness of empathising with others. Consequently, these subjects’ lack of human identification is reflected in the narcissistic condition, where they do not empathise, identify or care for others. Ambitions and ideals in the narcissistic individual Agreement amongst various scholars also exists on the relevance of ideals and ambitions in developme nt of narcissism. Kohut (1966) explains that hurt pride and inferiority feeling can be manifested very differently in the narcissist. Failure to reconcile an individual’s ideal with the self can cause immense shame. Usually, a person’s conception of the ideal emanates from their parents or mother (Lee and Martin, 1991). If their perception of the ideal differs tremendously from the self, then narcissistic tension will arise. Masterson (1981) also demonstrates intersubjective agreement on the same. He uses the example of authority; a person’s concept of ideal authority emanates from their parent’s manifestation of the same. If a parent was too authoritative or too weak, then chronic problems on ideal authority will arise. The individual may not even trust their own authority. Freud acknowledged that all human beings have inherent drive. He further asserted that drive could either be directed towards death or life. While a number of future psychologists rej ected the aspect of death drive, they still concurred with Freud on the relevance of ambition in life (Wolf, 1988). If applied to narcissism, individuals who fail to use the life drive effectively often experience a sense of inadequacy. Likewise, Kohut (1966) also explains the relevance of drive and ambition in the disorder. He clearly differentiates between useful ambition and dangerous drive. To Kohut, a person can possess either competitive aggressiveness or narcissistic rage. If objects come in the way of one’s goals, then competitive aggressiveness can arise. The psychological consequences of this type of anger is almost insignificant because once the goal has been attained, no psychological residues will exist (Wolf, 1988). A healthy person can easily go through one competitive situation to another without bringing up issues of the past. Conversely if self objects threaten the image of self, then narcissistic rage can arise. The narcissistic individual thinks of others as a means of sustaining the self; if they cease performing this function, and instead do the reverse, then they must be eradicated. Narcissistic rage arises when the person feels helpless about his situation after others have damaged it (Kohut, 1966). The goal of therapy Several scholars also agree on reactions of narcissists during therapy. Many adherents to the self psychology theory agree that constraints of time and resources may interfere with the effectiveness of therapy. This is especially because it may lead to irritation in the analysand. Additionally, because the narcissistic individual always focuses on indulging the self, then certain behaviour may be perceived as a threat to the client. For instance, the person may interpret prolonged silence as an attack against him. Additionally, if a therapist appears to be too rigid and neutral, then this may spark off narcissistic rage (Wolf, 1988). Usually, the severity of the situation is determined by its resemblance to past ca uses of narcissism. It is at such moments that the concerned therapist can intervene by explaining and interpreting the situation to the client. Healing may take place through restoration of the self. On the flipside, these irritations in therapy may be so disturbing that they may destroy the therapist’s credibility to the patient. In such circumstances, the patient may terminate his sessions as he cannot reconcile damage to the self and the therapeutic intervention. Usually, failure will occur if the therapeutic situation is too severe or too much of a trigger for narcissistic rage (Kohut, 1966). In other scenarios, treatment of narcissistic rage may not just occur in persons with narcissistic personality disorders. On occasion, people with borderline personality may also have the condition. In such scenarios, interpretations can be more detrimental than helpful to treatment. The client may respond to intervention as a threat to the self. In such situations, the counsellor m ust demonstrate empathy and exercise a lot of patience before tangible results can be seen (Wolf, 1988). Masterson also represents the object relations view of this perspective by adding that most narcissists find it hard to accept therapeutic help because it involves surrender. In their childhood, most of them had to become helpless and powerless in order to get their family’s attention; consequently, it is understandable when they do not want to put themselves in that vulnerable situation again (Masterson, 1981). Narcissism marginalises the act of surrender and causes many individuals to respond negatively to psychological intervention. Therefore, one of the goals of therapy should be to explain the usefulness of surrender. Counsellors ought to identify instances of love, generosity and care, which depend on surrender as a core principle. Masterson (1981) concurs with Kohut (1966) in terms of identifying and explaining instances of misunderstood emotions. Aside from surrend er, Masterson (1981) also reiterates that making a therapeutic alliance with narcissistic patients is fragile. He explains that it stems from the developmental fixation that occurred in the patient’s life. As a result, such a person may respond negatively to certain qualities of therapy. The narcissist has challenges with maintenance of boundaries and difficulties in handling frustration. Therefore, therapists must be wary of these challenges and expect periodic breakdowns. It is the effective management of these breakdowns that lead to success in management f the condition (Masterson, n.d.). Freud also demonstrated intersubjective agreement regarding the goal of treatment. He believed that one must trace the source of the patient’s triggers. Oedipal dynamics come into play here (Blanck Blanck, 1974). A therapist ought to identify the stage in the patient’s development where the libido (or the psychic energy) got fixed. Sometimes these memories may be repressed and the client may not know that the source of his narcissistic behaviour stems from a certain stage. The therapist must work with the patient in order to identify those aspects. To do this, one must determine the issues that cause the patient to become highly sensitive. For instance, the person may complain about a business partner who let him down or a spouse who did the same. A theme of betrayal may emerge from these interventions. Consequently, one should trace the instances of betrayal in the patient’s childhood that may have led to this hypersensitivity or betrayal. To Freud, and other ego psychologists, therapists must reconstruct measures conducted by the ego (the safeguard of a person’s innate desires and passions) calculatingly. Since the ego represses things or carries out its actions invisibly, then one must identify the missing elements in one’s psychology and work around it thoroughly. Freud and other scholars like Kohut also agreed on the reparen ting roles in therapy. Both psychologists argue that transference can take place between the patient and the therapist. In essence, the patient starts thinking of the counsellor as an idealised parent. The professional can then give them some of the things that they think they missed. Masterson (1981) also talks about the relevance of transference in treatment. The psychologist explains that transference ought not to be perceived as an object relationship; instead, the therapy should be merely regarded as a temporary board in which the patient can direct his conflicts. However, he adds that effective transference only takes place when the patient views the therapist in a realistic light; that is, as an imperfect person. In Jungian theory, scholars also echo the above sentiments about the goal of therapy. These adherents claim that psychologists should strive to get to the self, where the self is one of a number of Jungian archetypes. Jung believed that the self is at the core of the personality. If a person can unite all the aspects of the self, then he can become whole again. Therapists handling narcissistic patients should strive for integration. Conclusion Intersubjective agreement exists on the definition and manifestation of narcissism. Object relations, Freudian, and self psychologist theorists all agree that narcissistic subjects have an illusionary self confidence and feeling of superiority. However, these depictions disguise feelings of inadequacy. Additionally, intersubjective agreements also exist in regard to the origin of narcissism in infancy. Scholars in the self psychology school as well as the Freudian school agree that narcissistic disorders start from infancy, where a child’s love for himself is narcissistic. Intersubjective views on the development of narcissism in childhood revolve around the supportive role of the family and finding the real self. Psychologists representing divergent psychodynamic theories believe that parental pro jections in children can hamper the development of the true self and thus cause narcissist injury. Objects relations theorists emphasise fixation on the self object while Freudians dwell on oedipal fixation; self psychologists talk about the inferior sense of self. All these scholars agree on psychological injury in one’s childhood. Lastly, agreement also exists on the goal of therapy among various psychodynamic theorists. At the heart of their arguments is the need to identify the source of incompleteness in one’s self. Self psychologists suggest the use of empathy and transference; Freudians also talks about transference while object relations theorists emphasise reconciliation of the self with the self object. Additionally, all scholars also agree on the fragility of therapeutic setting with these kinds of subjects. References Almaas, A. (1996). The point of existence. Boston: Shambhala Press. Blanck, Gertrude, Blanck, Rubin. (1974). Ego psychology: Theory and prac tice. New York: Columbia University Press. Forman, M. (1976). Narcissistic disorders and the oedipal fixations. In J. Feldstein (Ed.), The Annual of Psychoanalysis (pp. 65-92). New York: International Universities. Johnson, S. (1987). Humanizing the narcissistic style. New York: Norton Kohut, H. (1966). Forms and Transformations of Narcissism. In C. Strozier (Ed.), self psychology and the humanities (pp. 97-123). New York: Norton. Lee, R. and Martin, C. (1991). Psychotherapy After Kohut: A Textbook of Self Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press. Masterson, J. (n.d.). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (Closet): A Developmental Self and Object Relations Approach. Web. Masterson, J. (1981). The narcissistic and borderline disorders. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Millon, T. and Davis, R. (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond. New York: Wiley. Reich, A. (1986). Pathological forms of self-esteem regulation. In A. P. Morrison (Ed.), Essen tial papers on narcissism (pp. 44-60). NY: McMillan. Wolf, E. (1988). Treating the Self: Elements of Clinical Self Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press. Wurmser, L. (1981). The Mask of Shame. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. 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Sunday, March 15, 2020

Choose A Significant Character in Lord of the Flies essays

Choose A Significant Character in Lord of the Flies essays Choose A Significant Character in Lord of the Flies. In describing This Character, Examine What Significance He Has to the Novel and Its Themes Lord of the Flies by William Golding is about a large group of young boys who get stranded on a deserted island. The book is mainly about survival and civilisation versus savagery. The boys must try to work together to stay alive but end up breaking into two groups: the civilised and the savages. In my essay I am going to examine Piggy, describing this character and what significance he has to the novel and its themes. Piggy is one of the very first characters to be introduced. In the novel Golding describes him as being short and fat with spectacles, wearing a grubby windbreaker. He is portrayed as being obedient, saying, my auntie told me not to. Indeed, several times Piggy mentions things his auntie has told him he is not allowed to do and even though she nor any other grown-ups arent there he still remains extremely well-mannered. Piggy is also the most intelligent of the boys and practical. The first thing we ought to have made was shelters down there by the beach. This suggestion would have been the best idea, but because it came from Piggy everyone just ignored him and ran off to have fun or hunt. His differences to the group made Piggy the centre of torment despite him being a major asset to the group. Ralph and Piggy were the first two boys to meet after the plane crash. As of this moment onwards they stuck by each other. They created an alliance. Ralph was the only one who stood up for Piggy when he was being bullied, which made Piggy idolise him. Youre chief Ralph, you remember everything. Ralph was like Piggys hero. He was appointed leader at the first meeting and Piggy was like his sidekick, I was with him when he found the conch. I was with him before anyone else was. Piggy wants to st ...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Macroeconomics Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Macroeconomics - Case Study Example Due to this fact among others, there has been a suggestion that the unemployment rate that has been released by the government are not exactly accurate and may actually be higher than the numbers stated (Nutting). However, taking this mode of argument means that one has to consider a number of factors before they are in agreement with the authors of these articles. For instance, the fact that one may be hindered from looking for a job by circumstances such as other duties and responsibilities like childcare and homecare does not mean that given the chance these individuals would actively search for employment opportunities. One has to factor in the issue of willingness as well as determination especially in a time where one can easily search for jobs online without having to leave the comfort of their homes. There are also various jobs that one can perform from their homes and thus if these individuals have not tried to get these kind of employment opportunities it can be established that they would look for the more traditional forms of work had they had an opportunity. The issue of being discouraged by the current economic situation and perhaps their failure in the past can also not be seen as a serious hindrance as this is a factor that can be overcome by willpower and determination. It can thus be correct to come to the conclusion that the real unemployment rate is not as accurate as one would think (Nutting). The issue of long term unemployment is also another subject that should be considered in matters of unemployment in relation to the available job opportunities that currently exist in the market. It has been seen that those who experience longer periods of time without employment have a lesser chance of getting a job as time goes on. This is because many employers tend to favor individuals who have a smaller gap between their status of unemployment and their last job (Coy). Long term